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Dundee Fact Sheets

Roses                                                              Print This Sheet


Roses are divided into several types:

  1.  1. HYBRID TEAS. The most widely grown modern rose. A long, slender bud will open into one blossom (usually double petaled) on each straight stem, making hybrid teas excellent cut flowers. Hybrid teas bloom from early summer to frost and come in a wide variety of colors. Most have a nice scent and grow 2’-4’, although some approach 6’.
  2. FLORIBUNDAS. Flowers are borne in clusters on each medium-length stem. The flowers are medium in size and come in many colors. Floribundas usually grow 2-3. They bloom from very late spring until frost. Many are very fragrant and most are fairly disease resistant.
  3. GRANDIFLORAS. These are a cross between hybrid teas and floribundas. Long stems and the flower form of the hybrid tea combine with the abundant bloom of the floribundas. Most grandifloras bear their flowers in small clusters. They grow 3’-6’ tall. Most are not as fragrant as other rose types.
  4. MINIATURES. They grow only 6”-18” tall with small blossoms. They come in a variety of colors and are good for people with limited space. Miniatures are excellent container plants.
  5. TREE FORM. A particular rose variety is grafted onto a tall trunk. The characteristics of the particular variety will remain true (i.e., flower form, fragrance). Tree form roses are very formal looking and require extra pruning. They are also more difficult to protect in the winter. However, they will be the talk of the neighborhood when in full bloom!
  6. CLIMBING. These roses will cover a trellis or fence. They should be tied to their support structure and will attain a height of 10’-20’. Although winter protection requires extra work, they make a stunning visual impact.
  7. SHRUB ROSES. Most varieties grow to be 3’-6’ tall. Shrub roses make excellent border plants. Some varieties bloom only once a year while others have recurrent bloom throughout the summer. Many varieties of shrub roses are quite winter hardy; others need winter protection.
  8. OLD FASHIONED. A cross between modern bush roses and old “English” roses. These varieties have good fragrance. They are disease resistant and bloom repeatedly throughout the summer.

Roses need fertile, well-drained soil. They should receive at least 6 hours of sun per day and they require good air circulation.

Potted roses should be planted after May 15 (average date of last frost) in the Twin Cities area. Carefully remove the pot in an effort to keep the soil ball intact. The bud union (bump on the stem) should be planted about 2” below soil level (some shrub roses will not have this bud union).

The plants need the equivalent of 1” of water per week, possibly more in very hot, windy weather. Water early in the day so the leaves are dry by nightfall. Watering at the base of the plant will help limit disease problems. Mulch will keep weeds down, the soil moist and cool, and help control diseases. Apply 3”-4” of mulch in June. Cocoa bean mulch is an excellent rose mulch. Peat moss also works well if turned periodically.

Major pruning of roses is done in the spring after they have been uncovered. During the summer, remove blossoms as they fade to encourage a longer flowering season. If you cut flowers for bouquets, cut back to a five-part leaflet. Don’t cut too many “long-stemmed” roses from one plant. Remove any suckers that grow from below the bud union on grafted roses.

Spray or dust roses with an insecticide/fungicide product every 7-10 days throughout the summer. Water plants the day before you spray or dust them. Fertilize roses periodically throughout the summer but stop in mid August. Any new growth after that time would not harden off properly before winter.

Winter protection of roses is a must except for certain shrub roses. The best results are obtained by tipping the entire plant into a trench and covering it with soil and mulch. See our separate Fact Sheet concerning Winter Protection of Roses.


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